6 of the best foods for diabetes and foods to avoid

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  • If you have diabetes, eat foods high in fiber, lean protein, and omega-3 fatty acids. 
  • Foods for diabetes include fatty fish, fruits, leafy greens, nuts, and whole grains. 
  • People with diabetes should avoid foods like refined grains and sugary beverages. 
  • Visit Insider’s Health Reference library for more advice.

Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body is unable to properly process glucose — the sugar found in food that your body converts into energy. This causes elevated blood sugar levels which can damage blood vessels and eventually lead to high blood pressure and nerve damage if left untreated.

Diet control is crucial for managing

diabetes
because it can help regulate blood sugar levels to prevent complications, says Jocelyne Karam, MD, Director of the Division of Endocrinology at Maimonides Medical Center. Nutrition plans for people with diabetes will vary by person but in general, Karam recommends:

Here are six of the best foods within those categories that can help people with diabetes manage blood sugar levels. 

1. Beans 

black bean burger

Try a black bean burger with a whole-wheat bun and avocado for a healthy dinner.

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Beans have two main components that make them great for people with diabetes: fiber and protein. Your body digests both fiber and protein more slowly, which reduces the risk of blood sugar spikes, says Dahlia Gomez, RD, a spokesperson for the Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists (ADCE). 

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends adding dried beans or canned beans with reduced sodium to meals. All beans contain fiber, but the ADA says the following are best for people with diabetes:

  • Black beans
  • Pinto beans
  • Kidney beans
  • Navy beans

2. Dark leafy greens 

Kale

Kale is a great option for people with diabetes.

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Dark leafy greens like spinach and kale contain vitamin C and antioxidants, which can reduce inflammation. While most inflammation is short-lived, it can be chronic in people with diabetes, increasing the risk of complications, like heart disease and kidney problems. 

These veggies are also low in calories and carbohydrates, making them a good choice for controlling both blood sugar levels and weight, Gomez says. 

Dark leafy greens for people with diabetes include:

3. Fatty fish 

salmon

Salmon is high in heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids.

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Fatty fish are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, a type of unsaturated fat that can improve heart health and decrease inflammation. Fish is also a great source of protein, Karam says. 

In addition to salmon, other examples of fatty fish include:

  • Sardines
  • Herring 
  • Trout 
  • Mackerel
  • Albacore tuna

4. Fruit

Yogurt bowl

Add bananas to Greek yogurt for a healthy breakfast.

Rachel Hosie


Fruits are high in natural sugar and carbohydrates, which is why there is a misconception that people with diabetes should avoid them. However, their high vitamin and mineral content means they’re a safe choice, Gomez says. 

If you have diabetes, it’s important to count the carbohydrates in fruit as part of your overall meal plan.

Strawberries contain antioxidants called anthocyanins, which have been shown to reduce cholesterol and improve blood sugar levels. Blueberries are also less likely to cause blood sugar spikes, thanks to their low glycemic index and high fiber content. 

Some fruits for people with diabetes include:

5. Nuts 

trail mix healthy nuts raisins seeds

Make a healthy trail mix with nuts, seeds, and some dried fruit.

EricFerguson/Getty Images


Nuts are a good source of healthy fat, magnesium, and fiber, Gomez says. Some nuts and seeds, like walnuts and flaxseeds, are also rich in omega-3 fatty acids

Examples of nuts for people with diabetes include:

  • Walnuts
  • Almonds
  • Hazelnuts
  • Pistachios

6. Whole-grains 

brown rice

Swap white rice for brown rice to help manage blood sugar levels.

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Whole grains such as whole-wheat bread and brown rice are preferred to refined grains, like white bread because they contain more fiber, Karam says.

Whole grains are also rich in B vitamins, magnesium, iron, and folate. A 2016 study found a diet rich in whole grains can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and dying from type 2 diabetes.  

Examples of whole grains for people with diabetes include:

  • Whole oats
  • Quinoa
  • Whole grain barley
  • Farro

Insider’s takeaway 

Some foods, like whole grains, fatty fish, nuts, and beans can help people with diabetes control their blood sugar levels. Increasing your intake of these foods can help you manage your diabetes, but the same diet won’t work for everyone. A diabetes education specialist or a registered dietitian can help you develop a plan that works for your individual needs.

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